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For more massive stars, helium core fusion starts before the core becomes degenerate, and the star spends some time in the red clump , slowly burning helium, before the outer convective envelope collapses and the star then moves to the horizontal branch.

After the star has fused the helium of its core, the carbon product fuses producing a hot core with an outer shell of fusing helium. The star then follows an evolutionary path called the asymptotic giant branch AGB that parallels the other described red giant phase, but with a higher luminosity.

The more massive AGB stars may undergo a brief period of carbon fusion before the core becomes degenerate. During their helium-burning phase, a star of more than 9 solar masses expands to form first a blue and then a red supergiant.

Particularly massive stars may evolve to a Wolf-Rayet star , characterised by spectra dominated by emission lines of elements heavier than hydrogen, which have reached the surface due to strong convection and intense mass loss.

When helium is exhausted at the core of a massive star, the core contracts and the temperature and pressure rises enough to fuse carbon see Carbon-burning process.

This process continues, with the successive stages being fueled by neon see neon-burning process , oxygen see oxygen-burning process , and silicon see silicon-burning process.

Near the end of the star's life, fusion continues along a series of onion-layer shells within a massive star. Each shell fuses a different element, with the outermost shell fusing hydrogen; the next shell fusing helium, and so forth.

The final stage occurs when a massive star begins producing iron. Since iron nuclei are more tightly bound than any heavier nuclei, any fusion beyond iron does not produce a net release of energy.

To a very limited degree such a process proceeds, but it consumes energy. Likewise, since they are more tightly bound than all lighter nuclei, such energy cannot be released by fission.

As a star's core shrinks, the intensity of radiation from that surface increases, creating such radiation pressure on the outer shell of gas that it will push those layers away, forming a planetary nebula.

If what remains after the outer atmosphere has been shed is less than 1. White dwarfs lack the mass for further gravitational compression to take place.

Eventually, white dwarfs fade into black dwarfs over a very long period of time. In massive stars, fusion continues until the iron core has grown so large more than 1.

This core will suddenly collapse as its electrons are driven into its protons, forming neutrons, neutrinos, and gamma rays in a burst of electron capture and inverse beta decay.

The shockwave formed by this sudden collapse causes the rest of the star to explode in a supernova. Supernovae become so bright that they may briefly outshine the star's entire home galaxy.

When they occur within the Milky Way, supernovae have historically been observed by naked-eye observers as "new stars" where none seemingly existed before.

A supernova explosion blows away the star's outer layers, leaving a remnant such as the Crab Nebula. Within a black hole, the matter is in a state that is not currently understood.

The blown-off outer layers of dying stars include heavy elements, which may be recycled during the formation of new stars. These heavy elements allow the formation of rocky planets.

The outflow from supernovae and the stellar wind of large stars play an important part in shaping the interstellar medium. The post—main-sequence evolution of binary stars may be significantly different from the evolution of single stars of the same mass.

If stars in a binary system are sufficiently close, when one of the stars expands to become a red giant it may overflow its Roche lobe , the region around a star where material is gravitationally bound to that star, leading to transfer of material to the other.

When the Roche lobe is violated, a variety of phenomena can result, including contact binaries , common-envelope binaries, cataclysmic variables , and type Ia supernovae.

Stars are not spread uniformly across the universe, but are normally grouped into galaxies along with interstellar gas and dust.

A typical galaxy contains hundreds of billions of stars, and there are more than billion 10 11 galaxies in the observable universe. A multi-star system consists of two or more gravitationally bound stars that orbit each other.

The simplest and most common multi-star system is a binary star, but systems of three or more stars are also found. For reasons of orbital stability, such multi-star systems are often organized into hierarchical sets of binary stars.

These range from loose stellar associations with only a few stars, up to enormous globular clusters with hundreds of thousands of stars.

Such systems orbit their host galaxy. It has been a long-held assumption that the majority of stars occur in gravitationally bound, multiple-star systems.

The nearest star to the Earth, apart from the Sun, is Proxima Centauri , which is Travelling at the orbital speed of the Space Shuttle 8 kilometres per second—almost 30, kilometres per hour , it would take about , years to arrive.

Due to the relatively vast distances between stars outside the galactic nucleus, collisions between stars are thought to be rare. In denser regions such as the core of globular clusters or the galactic center, collisions can be more common.

These abnormal stars have a higher surface temperature than the other main sequence stars with the same luminosity of the cluster to which it belongs.

Almost everything about a star is determined by its initial mass, including such characteristics as luminosity, size, evolution, lifespan, and its eventual fate.

Most stars are between 1 billion and 10 billion years old. Some stars may even be close to The oldest star yet discovered, HD , nicknamed Methuselah star, is an estimated The more massive the star, the shorter its lifespan, primarily because massive stars have greater pressure on their cores, causing them to burn hydrogen more rapidly.

The most massive stars last an average of a few million years, while stars of minimum mass red dwarfs burn their fuel very slowly and can last tens to hundreds of billions of years.

Typically the portion of heavy elements is measured in terms of the iron content of the stellar atmosphere, as iron is a common element and its absorption lines are relatively easy to measure.

The portion of heavier elements may be an indicator of the likelihood that the star has a planetary system. Due to their great distance from the Earth, all stars except the Sun appear to the unaided eye as shining points in the night sky that twinkle because of the effect of the Earth's atmosphere.

The Sun is also a star, but it is close enough to the Earth to appear as a disk instead, and to provide daylight. Other than the Sun, the star with the largest apparent size is R Doradus , with an angular diameter of only 0.

The disks of most stars are much too small in angular size to be observed with current ground-based optical telescopes, and so interferometer telescopes are required to produce images of these objects.

Another technique for measuring the angular size of stars is through occultation. By precisely measuring the drop in brightness of a star as it is occulted by the Moon or the rise in brightness when it reappears , the star's angular diameter can be computed.

The motion of a star relative to the Sun can provide useful information about the origin and age of a star, as well as the structure and evolution of the surrounding galaxy.

The components of motion of a star consist of the radial velocity toward or away from the Sun, and the traverse angular movement, which is called its proper motion.

The proper motion of a star, its parallax , is determined by precise astrometric measurements in units of milli- arc seconds mas per year.

With knowledge of the star's parallax and its distance, the proper motion velocity can be calculated. Together with the radial velocity, the total velocity can be calculated.

Stars with high rates of proper motion are likely to be relatively close to the Sun, making them good candidates for parallax measurements.

When both rates of movement are known, the space velocity of the star relative to the Sun or the galaxy can be computed. Among nearby stars, it has been found that younger population I stars have generally lower velocities than older, population II stars.

The latter have elliptical orbits that are inclined to the plane of the galaxy. The magnetic field of a star is generated within regions of the interior where convective circulation occurs.

This movement of conductive plasma functions like a dynamo , wherein the movement of electrical charges induce magnetic fields, as does a mechanical dynamo.

Those magnetic fields have a great range that extend throughout and beyond the star. The strength of the magnetic field varies with the mass and composition of the star, and the amount of magnetic surface activity depends upon the star's rate of rotation.

This surface activity produces starspots , which are regions of strong magnetic fields and lower than normal surface temperatures.

Coronal loops are arching magnetic field flux lines that rise from a star's surface into the star's outer atmosphere, its corona.

The coronal loops can be seen due to the plasma they conduct along their length. Stellar flares are bursts of high-energy particles that are emitted due to the same magnetic activity.

Young, rapidly rotating stars tend to have high levels of surface activity because of their magnetic field. The magnetic field can act upon a star's stellar wind, functioning as a brake to gradually slow the rate of rotation with time.

Thus, older stars such as the Sun have a much slower rate of rotation and a lower level of surface activity. The activity levels of slowly rotating stars tend to vary in a cyclical manner and can shut down altogether for periods of time.

This generation of supermassive population III stars is likely to have existed in the very early universe i. The combination of the radius and the mass of a star determines its surface gravity.

Giant stars have a much lower surface gravity than do main sequence stars, while the opposite is the case for degenerate, compact stars such as white dwarfs.

The surface gravity can influence the appearance of a star's spectrum, with higher gravity causing a broadening of the absorption lines.

The rotation rate of stars can be determined through spectroscopic measurement , or more exactly determined by tracking their starspots.

Degenerate stars have contracted into a compact mass, resulting in a rapid rate of rotation. However they have relatively low rates of rotation compared to what would be expected by conservation of angular momentum —the tendency of a rotating body to compensate for a contraction in size by increasing its rate of spin.

A large portion of the star's angular momentum is dissipated as a result of mass loss through the stellar wind. The pulsar at the heart of the Crab nebula , for example, rotates 30 times per second.

The surface temperature of a main sequence star is determined by the rate of energy production of its core and by its radius, and is often estimated from the star's color index.

Note that the effective temperature is only a representative of the surface, as the temperature increases toward the core.

The stellar temperature will determine the rate of ionization of various elements, resulting in characteristic absorption lines in the spectrum.

The surface temperature of a star, along with its visual absolute magnitude and absorption features, is used to classify a star see classification below.

Smaller stars such as the Sun have surface temperatures of a few thousand K. The energy produced by stars, a product of nuclear fusion, radiates to space as both electromagnetic radiation and particle radiation.

The particle radiation emitted by a star is manifested as the stellar wind, [] which streams from the outer layers as electrically charged protons and alpha and beta particles.

Although almost massless, there also exists a steady stream of neutrinos emanating from the star's core. The production of energy at the core is the reason stars shine so brightly: This energy is converted to other forms of electromagnetic energy of lower frequency, such as visible light, by the time it reaches the star's outer layers.

The color of a star, as determined by the most intense frequency of the visible light, depends on the temperature of the star's outer layers, including its photosphere.

In fact, stellar electromagnetic radiation spans the entire electromagnetic spectrum , from the longest wavelengths of radio waves through infrared , visible light, ultraviolet , to the shortest of X-rays , and gamma rays.

From the standpoint of total energy emitted by a star, not all components of stellar electromagnetic radiation are significant, but all frequencies provide insight into the star's physics.

Using the stellar spectrum , astronomers can also determine the surface temperature, surface gravity , metallicity and rotational velocity of a star.

If the distance of the star is found, such as by measuring the parallax, then the luminosity of the star can be derived.

The mass, radius, surface gravity, and rotation period can then be estimated based on stellar models. Mass can be calculated for stars in binary systems by measuring their orbital velocities and distances.

Gravitational microlensing has been used to measure the mass of a single star. The luminosity of a star is the amount of light and other forms of radiant energy it radiates per unit of time.

It has units of power. The luminosity of a star is determined by its radius and surface temperature. Many stars do not radiate uniformly across their entire surface.

The rapidly rotating star Vega , for example, has a higher energy flux power per unit area at its poles than along its equator. Patches of the star's surface with a lower temperature and luminosity than average are known as starspots.

Small, dwarf stars such as our Sun generally have essentially featureless disks with only small starspots. Giant stars have much larger, more obvious starspots, [] and they also exhibit strong stellar limb darkening.

That is, the brightness decreases towards the edge of the stellar disk. The apparent brightness of a star is expressed in terms of its apparent magnitude.

It is a function of the star's luminosity, its distance from Earth, the extinction effect of interstellar dust and gas, and the altering of the star's light as it passes through Earth's atmosphere.

Intrinsic or absolute magnitude is directly related to a star's luminosity, and is what the apparent magnitude a star would be if the distance between the Earth and the star were 10 parsecs Both the apparent and absolute magnitude scales are logarithmic units: On both apparent and absolute magnitude scales, the smaller the magnitude number, the brighter the star; the larger the magnitude number, the fainter the star.

The brightest stars, on either scale, have negative magnitude numbers. Despite Canopus being vastly more luminous than Sirius, however, Sirius appears brighter than Canopus.

This is because Sirius is merely 8. This star is at least 5,, times more luminous than the Sun. The faintest red dwarfs in the cluster were magnitude 26, while a 28th magnitude white dwarf was also discovered.

These faint stars are so dim that their light is as bright as a birthday candle on the Moon when viewed from the Earth. The current stellar classification system originated in the early 20th century, when stars were classified from A to Q based on the strength of the hydrogen line.

Instead, it was more complicated: The classifications were since reordered by temperature, on which the modern scheme is based. Stars are given a single-letter classification according to their spectra, ranging from type O , which are very hot, to M , which are so cool that molecules may form in their atmospheres.

The main classifications in order of decreasing surface temperature are: A variety of rare spectral types are given special classifications.

The most common of these are types L and T , which classify the coldest low-mass stars and brown dwarfs. Each letter has 10 sub-divisions, numbered from 0 to 9, in order of decreasing temperature.

However, this system breaks down at extreme high temperatures as classes O0 and O1 may not exist. In addition, stars may be classified by the luminosity effects found in their spectral lines, which correspond to their spatial size and is determined by their surface gravity.

Main sequence stars fall along a narrow, diagonal band when graphed according to their absolute magnitude and spectral type. Additional nomenclature, in the form of lower-case letters added to the end of the spectral type to indicate peculiar features of the spectrum.

For example, an " e " can indicate the presence of emission lines; " m " represents unusually strong levels of metals, and " var " can mean variations in the spectral type.

White dwarf stars have their own class that begins with the letter D. This is followed by a numerical value that indicates the temperature.

Variable stars have periodic or random changes in luminosity because of intrinsic or extrinsic properties. Of the intrinsically variable stars, the primary types can be subdivided into three principal groups.

During their stellar evolution, some stars pass through phases where they can become pulsating variables. Pulsating variable stars vary in radius and luminosity over time, expanding and contracting with periods ranging from minutes to years, depending on the size of the star.

A new app-enabled augmented reality experience. Star Wars app on the App Store. Own a copy of Rogue One: A Star Wars Story! Now on Digital HD. Lead your Squads into Battle.

New Units, More Rewards! Then there's just one question left: Will you finish what you begin? The Clone Wars Rewatch: New Book Star Wars: Whispers of the First Order - Resistance Rewind Discover how animators translated the threat of the First Order into new space battles and unique never-before-seen soldiers.

The Children From Tehar Episode Guide In need of credits to fix a broken part, Kaz looks to recover two missing children and claim a sizable bounty.

Make a Special Modification to Your Solo: Phil Noto on His Beautiful Solo: Inside the Designs of Solo: A Star Wars Story Concept artist Jake Lunt Davies reveals design secrets from the film -- and shares never-before-seen explorations of Maul for his return.

Method Acting with Chewbacca Solo: A Star Wars Story share what it's like acting alongside an icon. The Kasdans - Solo: New Falcon Design - Solo: A Star Wars Story The most iconic ship in the galaxy gets a redesign.

Favreau As Rio - Solo: Alden Gets Cast - Solo: What do you do? Falcon Damage - Solo: Drifting The Speeders - Solo: A Star Wars Story A mixture of digital and practical effects combined to create an unforgettable chase sequence in Solo: Animal Sounds - Solo: A Star Wars Story Chewbacca gets his "character" from a variety of sources Imperial Cadet - Solo: Corellian Foot Chase - Solo: Summa-Verminoth Often misunderstood, the summa-verminoth are massive tentacled creatures found dwelling among the stars in the treacherous maelstrom surrounding the planet Kessel.

L-1 Droid In the gray shadows of the grimy industrial world of Corellia, each morning L-1 general purpose droids power on among the organic working class to report to the shipyards, where they are tasked with clearing blockages in hydro transfers and other menial jobs.

Numidian Prime The jungle planet of Numidian Prime is located on the edge of the Mid Rim, a warm and beautiful rainforest paradise that's also a haven for smugglers and thieves trying to avoid outstanding debts.

En datoranimerad fortsättning, Star Wars: The Clone Wars , hade premiär i augusti Centralgestalten är den unge och godhjärtade Luke Skywalker som strävar efter att bli en jediriddare.

Bara en fullt utbildad jediriddare kan besegra kejsaren och Darth Vader. Jinn är övertygad om att Anakin är "den utvalde" the chosen one.

Jinn mördas dock av sithlorden Darth Maul , som senare besegras av Obi-Wan och lämnar tittarna att tro att han är död.

Dessvärre har Shmi blivit kidnappad och dödad av sandfolket. En central figur är senator Palpatine som efterhand tillskansar sig allt mer makt och i den sista filmen, Star Wars: Episod III — Mörkrets hämnd , till slut blir diktator och utropar sig till kejsare.

Palpatine visar sig vara ledaren för sithorden som jediriddarna letat efter. Anakin omvänds av Palpatine och blir därmed Darth Vader. Obi-Wan lämnar Vader för att dö men Palpatine anländer i sista stund och räddar honom.

Sammanlagt har de sex filmerna dragit in över fyra miljarder dollar i biointäkter. Huvudpersonerna är desamma, Darth Vader undantagen: Av andra Star Wars-relaterade produkter som har producerats inkluderas bland annat:.

För det amerikanska försvarsprojektet som i dagligt tal kallas "Star Wars" och "stjärnornas krig", se Strategic Defense Initiative.

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